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  Lección Treinta y cinco (35)

To know words and phrases without being able to
handle verbs means to be reduced to speaking " pidgin ".

It is agreed (está convenido) that you will not yet, try
to speak (que ustedes no tratarán de hablar todavía),
that you will only repeat sentences (que sólo repetirán las frases - hard s's-).
Nevertheless (sin embargo) it is time to prepare oneself (es tiempo de prepararse).

That is why we shall study only verbs in this lesson :
the conjugations tables are in the Grammatical Appendix;
you may have a glance at them; but don't spend too much time on them.
It is better to become familiar with them, gradually, by practice, firmly,
than to try to go too fast.
" Little by little, the bird builds his nest ".
Sancho Panza would say :

" Muchos pocos hacen un mucho ", Many "little" 's make a "much".

So, let's be content to-day with these few notes :


Present indicative. - Verbs in ar (the most numerous) :
Tomar el tren : to take the train.
(Yo) tomo el tren : I take the train.
(Él, élla, usted) toma el tren : he, she, you (one person) takes the train.
(Ellos, ellas, ustedes) toman el tren : They (masc.), they (fem.), you (several persons) take the train.

Verbs in er or ir :
Comer plátanos : to eat bananas.
- Vivir tranquilo: to live in peace.
(Yo) como plátanos, I eat bananas.
- (Yo) vivo tranquilo : I live in peace.
(Él, élla, usted) come plátanos : he, she, you (sing.) eats bananas.
- (Él, élla, usted) vive tranquilo (a) ; he,
she, you (sing.) lives in peace.
(Ellos, ellas, ustedes) comen plátanos : They (masc. and fem.), you (plur.) eat bananas.
- (Ellos, ellos, ustedes) viven tranquilos (as) : they, you (plur.) live in peace.

Preterite : Verbs in ar :
(Yo) tomé el tren : I took the train.
(El, ella, usted) tomó el tren : he, she, you took the train.
(Ellos, ellas, ustedes) tomaron el tren : they, you (pl.) took the train.

Verbs in er or ir :
(Yo) comí plátanos : I ate bananas.
- (Yo) viví tranquilo : I lived in peace.
(El, ella, usted) comió plátanos : he, she, you (sing.) ate bananas.
- (El, ella, usted) vivió tranquilo (a) : he, she, you lived in peace.
(Ellos, ellas, ustedes) comieron plátanos : they, you (plur.) ate bananas.
- (Ellos, ellas, ustedes) vivieron tranquilos (as) : they, you lived in peace.

- Verbs in ar.
(Yo) tomaré el tren : I shall take the train.
(El, ella, usted) tomará el tren : he, she, you (sing.) will take the train.
(Ellos, ellas, ustedes) tomarán el tren : they, you (pi.) will take the train.

Like the verbs in ar, i. e., by adding é, á, án to the infinitive :
comer, comeré, comerá, comerán;
vivir ; viviré, vivirá, vivirán.

- Tome (or Tome usted) el tren : take the train.
- Coma (or Coma usted) plátanos : eat bananas.
- Viva (or Viva usted) tranquilo : live in peace.

Past participle.
- (Yo he - él, élla, usted ha - ellos, ellas, ustedes han) tornado el tren,
comido plátanos, vivido tranquilos (as) :
(I have - he, she, you (sing.) has - they, you (plur.) have taken the train,
eaten bananas, lived in peace.

Present participle.
- Tomando el tren, comiendo plátanos, viviendo tranquilo :
taking, eating, living., etc.

Now, do some practice with :
ganar dinero, to earn money (which will be more pleasant than going on eating bananas)
on the type of tomar el tren:
yo gano, el gana etc... in the present;
- gané, ganó, etc., in the preterite;
- ganaba, in the progressive {or frequentative) preterite;
- ganaré, in the future.

Then, take: aprender algo: to learn something, on the type of comer plátanos : aprendo..., etc...

After these exercises, you will not yet feel quite confident, but you'll begin to understand;
and, to complete your apprenticeship, we shall give you in each of the next six lessons other verbs to conjugate on the
same types.

Don't let us be concerned yet with the other tenses, or the use of and its plural vosotros,
or with nosotros (us), or the irregular verbs.
Every thing in its own time.
We are undoing the faggot twig by twig; it's better than to try to do it at one go.