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Английский - От фонетики до живой речи. 1000 слов

Аудио 1 :  http://mltr.ifolder.ru/5394388

Аудио 2 : http://mltr.ifolder.ru/5396245

JRR Tolkien. Silmarillion.
14h 47min

Данное произведение, без сомнения, для энтузиастов. "Beware of the dwarves!" - иначе General Idea этого творения не передать.

Of Men

The Valar sat now behind their mountains at peace; and having given light to Middle-earth they left it for long untended, and the lordship of Morgoth was uncontested save by the valour of the Noldor. Most in mind Ulmo kept the exiles, who gathered news of the Earth through all the waters.

From this time forth were reckoned the Years of the Sun. Swifter and briefer are they than the long Years of the Trees in Valinor. In that time the air of Middle-earth became heavy with the breath of growth and mortality, and the changing and ageing of all things was hastened exceedingly; life teemed upon the soil and in the waters in the Second Spring of Arda, and the Eldar increased, and beneath the new Sun Beleriand grew green and fair.

At the first rising of the Sun the Younger Children of Ilúvatar awoke in the land of Hildórien in the eastward regions of Middle-earth; but the first Sun arose in the West, and the opening eyes of Men were turned towards it, and their feet as they wandered over the Earth for the most part strayed that way. The Atani they were named by the Eldar, the Second People; but they called them also Hildor, the Followers, and many other names: Apanónar, the After-born, Engwar, the Sickly, and Fírimar, the Mortals; and they named them the Usurpers, the Strangers, and the Inscrutable, the Self-cursed, the Heavy-handed, the Night-fearers, the Children of the Sun. Of Men little is told in these tales, which concern the Eldest Days before the waxing of mortals and the waning of the Elves, save of those fathers of men, the Atanatári, who in the first years of the Sun and Moon wandered into the North of the world. To Hildórien there came no Vala to guide Men, or to summon them to dwell in Valinor; and Men have feared the Valar, rather than loved them, and have not understood the purposes of the Powers, being at variance with them, and at strife with the world. Ulmo nonetheless took thought for them aiding the counsel and will of Manwë; and his messages came often to them by stream and flood. But they have not skill in such matters, and still less had they in those days before they had mingled with the Elves. Therefore they loved the waters, and their hearts were stirred, but they understood not the messages. Yet it is told that ere long they met Dark Elves in many places, and were befriended by them; and Men became the companions and disciples in their childhood of these ancient folk, wanderers of the Elven-race who never set out upon the paths to Valinor, and knew of the Valar only as a rumour and a distant name.

Lesson 34

pretty - миловидный, прелестный, хорошенький

I was feeling pretty good about myself, when the heat started to get to me.
Я ощущал себя вполне хорошо, когда (до тех пор пока) горячка (велогонки) не стала пробирать меня.

a print - копия, оттиск
to print -

She was holding the little print so that Jane did not see the face of the man it portrayed.
Она держала маленький оттиск (форму) так, что Джейн не видела лицо человека, которое он отображал.

probable - вероятный, возможный
evening - вечер
event - событие, происшествие, случай

They had returned to their rooms,
and were sitting talking over the probable outcome of the evening's events.
Они вернулись в их комнаты,
и сидели разговаривали о вероятных последствиях вечерних событий.

problem - проблема; вопрос; задача
such - такой, таковой, определённый

But here was a problem which defied such simple distinctions: that threw her oft-balance; left her sick and bewildered.
Но была проблема, которая маскировала (на обращала внимания) на такое простые различия - это выводило её из равновесия, делало её раздосадованной и сбитой с толку.

a process - процесс, течение, ход, развитие; продвижение
to process - обрабатывать, оформлять
brought - приносил (past and past participle of bring), принёс
colour, color - цвет
to colour, to color - раскрашивать

His waking brought the process to an end. The colours, the bees and the threads all retreated.
Его пробуждение завершило процесс. Цвета, пчёлы и нити все отступили.

proper - правильный, должный; достойный
proper behaviour - достойное поведение

We don't have the proper equipment,
 and we don't have any map of the system we're going into.
У нас нет подходящего оборудования,
и у нас нет карты системы, в которую мы собираемся (влезть).


property - имущество; собственность
property - свойство, особенность

For a day or two we were busily employed in unpacking and laying out our property
to the best advantage.
День или два мы были заняты, распаковывая и выкладывая наши пожитки
наилучшим (оптимальным для нас) образом.

to provide - заготовлять, запасать ; обеспечивать

I should therefore be in a position to provide you with those comforts
to which you are accustomed.
Я буду, таким образом, способен обеспечить тебя комфортом,
к которому ты привыкла.

to pull  - тянуть, тащить
behind - позади, за, после

If that front of the cage was only back in its position once more,
I could find a sure refuge behind it.
Could I possibly pull it back?
Если бы перед (передняя стенка) коробки была опять в её (исходном) положении,
я мог бы найти надежное  убежище за ней.
Мог бы я вернуть (оттащить) её назад?


to push - толкать; пихать
boat - лодка
back - назад, зад, сзади ; спина, задняя сторона (front/back)

Twice we tried to push out our little boat,
and twice it was thrown back by the sea.
Дважды мы пытались оттолкнуть нашу маленькую лодку,
и дважды мы были отброшены назад морем.

quart - q кварта (единица объёма, применяемая в некоторых странах)
full - полный, заполненный ; толстый, жирный

It was a large funnel, and might hold a quart when full.
Это была большая воронка, и могла вмещать кварту, когда заполнена.

a question - вопрос
to question - спрашивать, допрашивать

"Ah!" said he, "it is the very question which I have had occasion to ask myself.
"Ах!", сказал он. "Это тот самый вопрос, который я имел место задавать себе."

to follow - следовать, следовать за
following - следующий, последующий

He followed like a lamb, too weary to question their route.
"Он проследовал как ягнёнок, слишком измученный, чтобы спрашивать их  курс (об их направлении движения).

quiet  - тихий, бесшумный, спокойный, уединённый

Sometimes she'd get into a quiet rage at his apparent indifference to her,
and tell him to his vacant face that he was being selfish.
Иногда, её охватывала тихая ярость из-за его  очевидного безразличия к ней,
и говорила в его отсутствующее лицо, что он был эгоистом.


rail - перила, поручни; ограда, ограждение
rail - рельсы, железнодорожный путь

Tarzan stood leaning over the rail looking far out to sea.
Тарзан стоял, наклонившись над перилами, смотря далеко в море.

rain - дождь
mouth - рот
with a start - внезапно

a drink - напиток
to drink - пить

drink , drank, drunk, drinking

With a start he gained consciousness
to find himself wet through by torrents of rain.
A heavy tropical shower was beating down upon them.
He opened his mouth and drank.

Внезапно, он пришёл в сознание,
чтобы найти себя мокрым из-за
 стремительных потоков дождя.
Сильный тропический ливень бил по ним.
Он открывал рот и пил.

to raise - поднимать, подниматься
to raise - поднимать, собирать деньги
to raise funds — консолидировать капиталы; формировать фонды

Weakly he managed to raise his head a little.
There was Sightblinder, lying just out of his reach.
Слабо, он смог поднять немного голову.
Ослепитель лежал как раз вне зоны его досягаемости.

range - диапазон, круг, область (определения)
mountain range — гряда гор, горная цепь

Riding swiftly into range they shot arrows at the Orcs
that straggled behind, and several of them fell.
Живенько въезжая в зону досягаемости, они выпустили стрелы в Орков,
бродивших  позади, и несколько из них упали.

to read - читать, прочитать

read [ri:d] , read [red] , read [red]  , reading [ri:ding]

I love to read tales about rats. They make my flesh creep so.
Я люблю читать истории о крысах. От них у меня волосы дыбом встают.

reason - разум, рассудок, благоразумие, здравый смысл
reason - причина, повод, основание
to reason - рассуждать, размышлять

little - маленький
less - меньший, меньше
least - наименьший, малейший

All right, you've got reason not to trust me. But at least give me a hearing.
Хорошо, у тебя есть причина не доверять мне. Но хотя бы выслушай меня.

a record - запись; регистрация, письменная фиксация
a record -  рекорд, рекордное достижение
to record -

I went to the start line and took off.
I smashed the course record by 45 seconds.
Я подъехал к стартовой черте и стартовал.
Я разгромил рекорд (трассы) , улучшил на 45 секунд.

region - пространство, территория, область, зона
border region - пограничная область
mountainous region - горная область

There was blood coming from the region of his right ear,
and he was nursing his left arm with his right.
Кровь шла из области его правого уха,
и он охватывал его левую руку правой.

to repeat - повторять, повторяться

He is still a spy.
It is unnecessary to repeat the formality of a trial.
Он по прежнему шпион.
Нет необходимости повторять все формальности суда (судебные формальности).


Grammar Reference. Unit 7

7.2 Present Perfect or Past Simple?

1. The Present Perfect is for unfinished actions. The Past Simple is for completed actions. Compare:

Present Perfect Past Simple
I've lived in Texas for six years I lived in Texas for six years.
I still live there. Now I live somewhere else.
I've written several books. Shakespeare wrote 30 plays.
I can still write some more. He can't write any more.

We can see that the Present Perfect refers to indefinite time and the Past Simple refers to definite time by looking at the time expressions used with the different tenses.

Present Perfect - indefinite Past Simple - definite
I've done it for a long time. I did it yesterday.
I've done it since July. I did it last week.
I've done it before. I did it two days ago.
I've done it recently. I did it at 8 o'clock.
  I did it in 1999.
I've already done it. I did it when I was young.
I haven't done it yet. I did it for a long time.


Be careful with this morning / this afternoon, etc.

Have you seen Ann this morning? (It's still morning.)
Did you see Ann this morning? (It's the afternoon or evening.)


7.3 Present Perfect Simple passive

Form: have been / has been + past participle

It has been sold.
They have been sold.

Use: The uses are the same in the passive as in the active.

Two million cars have been produced so far this year. (unfinished past)
Has she ever been made redundant? (past experience)
"Have you heard? Two hundred homes have been washed away by a tidal wave!" (present importance)

7.4 Phrasal verbs

There are four types of phrasal verbs. Types 1, 2, 3 can be literal or idiomatic. Type 4 are nearly always idiomatic.

Type 1. Verb + particle (no object).

a. He put on his coat and went out.
b. I didn't put enough wood on fire and it went out.

In a, the verb and particle are used literary. In b, they are used idiomatically. Go out means stop burning.

Examples with literal meaning:

Sit down.
She stood up and walked out.
Please go away.
She walked right past the store without noticing it.

Examples with idiomatic meaning:

The marriage didn't work out. (= succeed)
Our plans fell through. (= fail)

Type 2. Verb + particle + object (separable).

a. I put up the picture.
b. I put up my sister for the night.

In a, the verb and particle are used literary. In b, they are used idiomatically. Put up means give someone food and place to sleep, usually for the night or a few days.

Type 2 phrasal verbs are separable. The object (noun or pronoun) can come between the verb and the particle.

I put up the picture. I put the picture up.
I put up my sister. I put my sister up.

If the object is a pronoun, it always comes between the verb and the particle.

I put it up. NOT I put up it.
I put her up. NOT I put up her.

Examples with a literal meaning:

The waiter took away the plates.
Don't throw it away.
They're pulling that old building down.

Examples with an idiomatic meaning:

I put off the meeting. (= postpone)
Don't let me down. (= disappoint)

Type 3. Verb + particle+ object (inseparable)

a. She came across the room.
b. She came across an old friend while she was out shopping.

In a, the verb and particle are used literary. In b, they are used idiomatically. Come across means find by accident.

Type 3 phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object (noun or pronoun) always comes after the particle.

NOT She came an old friend across. She came her across.

Examples with a literal meaning:

I'm looking for Jane.
They ran across the park.
We drove past them.

Examples with an idiomatic meaning:

I'll look after it for you. (= care for)
She takes after her father. (= resemble in features, build, character, or disposition)
He never got over the death of his wife. (= recover from)

Type 4. Verb + particle + particle

I get along very well with my boss.
I'm looking forward to it.
How can you put up with that noise?

Type 4 phrasal verbs are nearly always idiomatic. The object cannot change position. It cannot come before the particles or between the particles.

NOT I'm looking forward it to.

Dialog 71. Handshake Диалог 71.  Рукопожатие.
"Doctor, Doctor, You’ve got to help me - I just can’t stop my hands shaking!"
"Do you drink a lot?"
"Not really - I spill most of it!"
"Доктор, доктор, вы должны помочь мне - я не могу остановить мои руки - трясутся!"
"Вы пьёте много?"
Не совсем - я проливаю большую часть."

Did you go to the doctor?
Yes, but I made an appointment first.
I went to the doctor after I had made an appointment.

Ты ходил к врачу?
Да, но я сначала договорился о встрече ("сделал назначение").
Я сходил (ходил, отправился) к врачу после того, как записался (к нему).
Did the boss leave the office?
Yes, but he finished his work first. 
He left the office after he had finished his work.
Твой босс ушёл из офиса?
Да, но он сначала завершил работу.
Он покинул офис после того, как он закончил работу (он имел законченной).
The waiter asked the blonde if she would like her pizza cut into six pieces or twelve.
"Six please" she said, "I could never eat twelve!"
Официант спросил блондинку, хочет ли она пиццу разрезанную на шесть частей или на двенадцать.
"Шесть, пожалуйста", она сказала. "Я никогда не осилила бы двенадцать!"

Did your mother sweep the floor? 
Yes, but she dusted the cupboard  first.
She swept the floor after she had dusted the cupboard.

Твоя мама подмела пол?
Да, но она вытерла пыль со шкафа сначала.
Она подмела пол после того, как протёрла шкаф.
Did the children go to bed?
Yes, but they had a bath first.
The children went to bed after they had had a bath.
Дети пошли спать (шли в кровать)?
Да, но сначала они приняли ванну.
Дети пошли спать после того, как приняли ванну.


Grammar 31

Verb. Participle.

Стандартные способы образования причастий. Нестандартные формы смотрите в Таблице неправильных глаголов.

Глагол Прошедшее время Причастие прошедшего времени Причастие настоящего времени Название действия Название профессии
to play played played playing playing player
играть играл;
Am En: играл, сыграл
игравший, проигранный играющий игра, играние игрок, проигрыватель
to form formed formed forming forming former
формировать формировал
Am En: формировал, сформировал
формировавший, сформированный формирующий, образующий формирование, отливка формировальщик, формовщик, создатель, изобретатель


Употребление причастия - как

1. Части сказуемого

Не is writing a book.
Он пишет книгу.
Он есть пишущий

2. Определения

The playing boy is my son.
Играющий мальчик - мой сын.

The method used is not new.
Используемый метод - не нов.
Использованный метод не новый.

3. Обстоятельства

While reading, he made notes.
Читая, он делал заметки.
В то время, как читая, читающий


Verb. Gerund.

Герундий представляет собой неличную форму глагола. Синтаксические функции герундия близки функциям существительного

Использование неличных глагольных форм в функции

1. Подлежащего

Mastering this specialty is an indispensable thing. (герундий)
Овладение этой специальностью
- необходимая вещь.

2. Части сказуемого

Her duty is to answer all letters. (инфинитив)
Ее обязанность - отвечать на все письма.

3. Дополнения

He likes to write with a ballpoint pen. (инфинитив)
Он любит писать авторучкой.

I like studying English. (герундий)
Мне нравится изучать
(изучение) Английский.

4. Определения

I have brought you an interesting book to read.( инфинитив)
Я принес вам
интересную книгу почитать.

I have an intention of reading this article as soon as possible. (герундий)
Я намерен прочесть эту статью как можно скорее.
Я имею намерение прочтения...

5. Обстоятельства

They went there early to get good seats. (инфинитив)
Они пошли туда рано, чтобы
получить хорошие места.
получать хорошие места

After returning to London he resumed his work. (герундий)
После возвращения в
Лондон он возобновил работу.

Grammar Reference. Unit 8

8.0 Introduction to conditionals

There are many different ways of making sentences with if.
It's important to understand the difference between sentences that express real possibilities, and those that express unreal situations.

Real possibilities  
If it rains, we'll stay home. if + Present Simple + will
If you've finished your work, you can go home. if + Present Perfect + modal auxiliary verb
If you're feeling ill, go home and get into bed. If + Present Continuous + imperative
Unreal situations  
You would understand me better if you came from my country. would + if + Past Simple
If I were rich, I wouldn't have any problems. if + were + would
If I stopped smoking, I could run faster. if + Past Simple + modal auxiliary verb

There are several patterns that you need to know to understand the variations. Note that a comma is usual when the if clause comes first.


8.1 First conditional

Form: if + Present Simple + will

If I find your wallet, I'll let you know.
We'll come and see you on Sunday if the weather's good.

You won't pass the test if you don't study.
If you lose your ticket, you won't be able to go.

What will you do if you don't find a job?
If there isn't a hotel, where will you stay?

Note that we don't usually use will in the if clause.

NOT If you will leave now, you'll catch the train.
NOT If I'll go out tonight, I'll give you a call.

If can be replaced by unless (= if ... not) or in case (= because of the possibility ...).

Unless I hear from you, I'll come at 8:00.
I'll take my umbrella in case it rains.


1. First conditional sentences express a possible condition and its probable result in the future.

Condition (if clause) Result (result clause)
If I find a jumper in your size, I'll buy it for you.
If you can't do the homework, give me a call.
If you can find my purse, I might buy you an ice-cream.
If you've never been to Wales, you should try to go there one day.

2. We can use the first conditional to express different functions (all of which express a possible condition and probable result).

If you do that again, I'll kill you! (a threat)
Careful! If you touch that, you'll burn yourself! (a warning)
I'll post the letter if you like. (an offer)
If you lend me 100$, I'll love you forever. (a promise)