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Английский - От фонетики до живой речи. 1000 слов

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Douglas Adams - The Long Dark Tea-time of The Soul
5 h 59 min

 'It's only because you come to me with the highest recommendation
from my very good friend and colleague Mr, er --'
'Franklin, Alan Franklin,' prompted Kate, to save the psychologist
from having to open his drawer again. Alan Franklin was a therapist
whom Kate had seen for a few sessions after the loss of her husband
Luke. He had warned her that Standish, though brilliant, was also
peculiar, even by the high standards set by his profession.
'Franklin,' resumed Standish, 'that I agreed to see you. Let me warn
you instantly that if I see any resumption of this "Something nasty in
the Woodshead" mendacity appearing in the papers as a result of this
interview I will, I will --'
'" -- do such things --
"What they are yet I know not -- but they shall be
"The terror of the Earth",' said Kate, brightly.
Standish narrowed his eyes.
'/Lear/, Act 2, Scene 4,' he said. 'And I think you'll find it's
"terrors" and not "terror".'
'Do you know, I think you're right?' replied Kate.
Thank you, Alan, she thought. She smiled at Standish, who relaxed
into pleased superiority. It was odd, Kate reflected, that people who
needed to bully you were the easiest to push around.
'So you would like to know precisely what, Miss Schechter?'
'Assume,' said Kate, 'that I know nothing.'
Standish smiled, as if to signify that no assumption could possibly
give him greater pleasure.
'Very well,' he said. 'The Woodshead is a research hospital. We
specialise in the care and study of patients with unusual or previously
unknown conditions, largely in the psychological or psychiatric fields.
Funds are raised in various ways. One of our chief methods is quite
simply to take in private patients at exorbitantly high fees, which
they are happy to pay, or at least happy to complain about. There is in
fact nothing to complain about because patients who come to us
privately are made fully aware of why our fees are so high. For the
money they are paying, they are, of course, perfectly entitled to
complain -- the right to complain is one of the privileges they are
paying for. In some cases we come to a special arrangement under which,
in return for being made the sole beneficiaries of a patient's estate,
we will guarantee to look after that patient for the rest of his or her
'So in effect you are in the business of giving scholarships to
people with particularly gifted diseases?'
'Exactly. A very good way of expressing it. We are in the business
of giving scholarships to people with particularly gifted diseases. I
must make a note of that. Miss Mayhew!'
He had opened a drawer, which clearly contained his office intercom.
In response to his summons one of the cupboards opened, and turned out
to be a door into a side office -- a feature which must have appealed
to some architect who had conceived an ideological dislike of doors.
From this office there emerged obediently a thin and rather blank-faced
woman in her mid-forties.
'Miss Mayhew,' said Mr Standish, 'we are in the business of giving
scholarships to people with particularly gifted diseases.'
'Very good, Mr Standish,' said Miss Mayhew, and retreated backwards
into her office, pulling the door closed after her. Kate wondered if it
was perhaps a cupboard after all.
'And we do have some patients with some really quite outstanding
diseases at the moment,' enthused the psychologist. 'Perhaps you would
care to come and see one or two of our current stars?'
'Indeed I would. That would be most interesting, Mr Standish, you're
very kind,' said Kate.
'You have to be kind in this job,' Standish replied, and flicked a
smile on and off at her.

Времена Английских глаголов

Que veux-tu dire poète?
Tu as la langue fourchue
Ne fais pas de pirouettes
Dis-moi si tu l'as vue

Словесные пируэты - Условное и сослагательное наклонение

If you knew me better, you wouldn't have said that.
Если бы ты знал меня получше, ты бы так не сказал.

That would do nicely, sir.
Это было бы хорошо. Как это миленько, сэр.

I felt as if Id been forced into talking to him. (c) WWE Batista
Я чувствовал себя так, как будто меня заставили поговорить с ним.

Conditional and Conjunctive mood

Сослагательное наклонение - довольно обширная тема сама по себе, о нём написано множество книг (God bless them all and keep them safe) - один из примеров здесь.

Правильное и свободное употребление условного и сослагательного наклонения - непременное условие владения любым языком "в совершенстве", и Английский не исключение. Сослагательное наклонение - это не только и даже не столько строго описанные в грамматике формы, но и "полёт фантазии", умение придумывать на ходу "а что бы было, если бы что-то было" - то, что и есть, строго говоря, живой язык.

Но, мы не будет сейчас разбирать все разделы, подразделы и параграфы, касающиеся условного и сослагательного наклонения, поскольку если книга содержит параграф 222, то это гарантия, что этот параграф никогда никем не будет прочитан.

Условные и сослагательные формы изучайте по книгам Terry Pratchett - он большой мастер придумывать "как будто".

as if - как будто, как будто если, как будто если бы

As a king he was used to treating servants as if they were not there, and running through them as a ghost was almost the same.
The only difference was that they didn't stand aside.

Как видим, чтобы понять о чём идет речь, нужно знать, о чём, собственно, идёт речь - "быть в теме". А чтобы "быть в теме", читайте новости на англоязычных сайтах, слушайте аудиокниги, читайте литературу.


If only he could make it!
Если бы он только смог (сделать это)!

Douglas Adams:

A Renault drove by, and its driver made frantic and complex signals
to the trudging figure to indicate that he would have been delighted to
give the figure a lift, only he couldn't this time because he wasn't going
in the direction that the figure wanted to go, whatever direction that
might be, and he was sure the figure would understand.


God bless you!
Благослови тебя Бог!

Terry Pratchett:

'Happy New Year, Henry.'
'Happy New Year, Ron.'
'And god bless us, every one,' said Arnold Sideways.
The curtain of snow hid them from view.
'Which god?'
'Dunno. What've you got?'


Nanny Ogg looked at me as if she didn't know me.
Баба Огг посмотрела на меня так, как будто бы не знала меня.

Terry Pratchett:

Granny Weatherwax had picked up a copy of the script, which she peered at from time to time, as if seeking ideas.
' "Divers alarums and excursions",' she read, uncertainly.
'Alarums and what?' said Nanny Ogg, who hadn't been listening.

I should ask her.
Я должен бы спросить ее.

Terry Pratchett:

That's why they burble about "the show must go on".
It must go on.
But most of the company wouldn't even understand why anyone should ask the question.

I would like to comment on that.
Я хотел бы прокомментировать по этому поводу.

Douglas Adams:

 - So here I am. And what I would like to know, is how you know my
- Perhaps we ought to first sort out, - said Arthur, looking back
over his shoulder as he eased his car into the motorway traffic, - where
I'm taking you.

Сводка формальных правил для употребления сослагательного наклонения будет в Grammar Reference. Не забудьте, что понимание о чём идёт речь - принципиально необходимо - перед тем, как вы сможете понять, о чём не идёт речь. Читайте на английском, читайте разных авторов, слушайте аудиокниги - американские и британские.


Grammar Reference. Unit 4

4.2 should, ought to, must

Form: Should, ought to, and must are modal verbs.

I should study English.
You shouldn't play tennis today.
He ought to work hard.
She ought not to watch TV today.
It must work perfectly.
We should eat less.


1. Should and ought to express mild obligation, suggestion, or advice. They express what, in the speaker's opinion, is the right or best thing to do. We often use them with I think / I don't think ...

You're always asking me for money. I think you should spend less.
You shouldn't sit so close to the television! It's bad for your eyes.
You ought to be more careful with your money.

2. Should I / should she / should we...? is possible. We often use Do you think ...?

Should I try to eat less?
Do you think I should see a doctor?

3. Must, like have to, expresses strong obligation. Must expresses an obligation that involves the speaker's opinion. It's personal.

I must get my hair cut. (This is me talking to me.)
You must go and visit your grandmother. (A parent talking to a child.)

4. Must is also associated with a formal, written style.

All visitors must show proper ID. (Sign in the lobby of an office building.)
Books must be returned on or before the due date. (Instructions in a library.)


have to and must, don't have to and mustn't

1. Have to and must are sometimes interchangeable.

I must be home by midnight.
I have to be home by midnight.

But have to is used more often then must. If you are unsure which to use, it's probably safer to use have to.

2. Must I...? is possible, but question forms with have to are more common.

Do I have to do what you say, or can I do what I want?

3. Have to has all forms, must does not.

I had to work until midnight last night. (Past)
You'll have to study hard when you go to college. (Future)
She's a millionaire. She's never had to do any work. (Present Perfect)
I hate having to get up on cold, winter nights. (-ing form)
If you were a nurse, you would have to wear a uniform. (Infinitive)

4. Don't have to and mustn't are completely different.

Don't have to expresses absence of obligation - you can but it's not necessary.

Some people iron their socks, but you don't have to. I think it's a waste of time.
When you go into a shop, you don't have to buy something. You can just look.

Mustn't expresses negative obligation - it's very important not to do something.

You mustn't steal other people's things. It's wrong.
You mustn't drive if you've been drinking. You could kill someone!


4.3 Making requests: can, could, will, and would

1. There are many ways of making requests in English.

Can you help me, please.
Could you pass the salt, please.
Will you do this for me, please.
Would you help me, please.
Would you mind helping me, please.

Can I speak to you, please.
Could we ask you a question?
Do you mind if I open the window?
Would you mind if he opened the window?

Can, could, will, and would are all modal verbs.

2. Could is a little more formal, can is a little more familiar.

Could I ...? and Could you ...? are very useful because they can be used in many different situations.

3. Here are some ways of responding to requests.

A : Excuse me! Could you help me?
B : Sure.
   Of course.
   Well, I'm afraid I'm a little busy right now.

A : Would you mind if I opened the window?
B: No, not at all.
   No, that's fine.
   Well, I'm a little cold, actually.


4.4 Making offers : will and shall / should

1. Will and shall / should are used to express offers. They are both modal verbs.

2. The contracted form of will is used to express an intention, decision, or offer made at the moment of speaking.

Come over after work. I'll cook dinner for you.
"It's Jane's birthday today." "Is it? I'll buy her some flowers."
Give him your suitcase. He'll carry it for you.
Don't worry about catching the bus. Dave'll give you a lift.
Give it back or we'll call the police!

In many languages, this idea is often expressed by a present tense, but in English this is wrong.

I'll give you my number. NOT I give you my number.
I'll carry your suitcase. NOT I carry your suitcase.

3. Shall / Should ...? is used in questions with the first person, I and we. It expresses an offer, a suggestion, or a request for advice.

"Shall I carry your bag for you?" "That's very kind of you. Thank you."
"Shall we go out for a meal tonight?" "Mmm. I'd love to."
"What shall we do? We haven't got any money." "We could ask Dad."

We use should to make an informal suggestion.

What should we have for dinner?
What should we do tonight?


Lesson 33

lazy - ленивый
lazily - лениво, по ленивому

 A grey eagle was circling lazily over a distant blue-hazed patch of forest.
Its mind was currently at ease. It would do nicely.
Серый орёл кружил лениво над далёким, в голубой дымке, пятном леса.
Его разум был расслаблен в текущий момент. Это то, что нужно (это сделает красивенько, хорошенько).


to serve - служить в доме (у кого-л.) , быть слугой ; состоять на государственной службе ;  служить в армии
serve up - "служить аб, служить об, обслуживать" - накрывать на стол, подавать (на стол); снабжать

I was ready. It was my dream, my greatest ambition, to serve him, to prove myself to him.
Я был готов. Это была моя мечта, моя величайшая цель - служить ему, доказать себя ему.

to settle - усаживать(ся); укладывать(ся); устраивать(ся)
поселить(ся), водворить(ся), обосноваться
to settle an account - оплачивать (счет) ; расплачиваться
, рассчитываться

Somebody's still loose. I hope he hurries up an' catches her so we can settle down.
Кто-то по-прежнему отстаёт. Надеюсь, он поторопится, и догонит её, так что мы сможем успокоиться.

- семь, семёрка
to live - жить, проживать

There is a lodging in a cellar and this lodging consists of two damp rooms. In these rooms a workman and his family live - seven people in all.
В погребе жилище, и это жилище состоит из двух сырых комнат. В этих комнатах рабочий и его семья живут - всего семь человек.

a share
- доля, часть; квота
to share - делить, распределять; разделять

She had never met a man like him,
a man who shared her interests,
who loved her for who she was.

Она никогда не встречала мужика как он,
мужик, который разделял её интересы,
кто любил её такой, как она есть.

- острый ; пронизывающий, чёткий
sharp mind - острый ум
face - лицо, лицевая сторона

"Hello, Maria," he said. His sharp eyes searched her face,
he had last seen her at Gordon's funeral. "How is your family?"

"Перевед, Мария", он сказал. Его пронзительный взгляд осматривал её лицо,
он в последний раз видёл её на похоронах Гордона.
(тут нужно заметить, что это вампирический роман, что подразумевает, что совсем не факт, что Гордона хоронили)
"Как твоя семья?"

 - простыня ; полотно, холст
sheet of paper - лист бумаги

Last night I lay in bed with my sheet up to my chin.
Прошлой ночью я лежала в кровати, простыня до подбородка.

- оболочка, корка ; раковина

Flo came in with Simon and they stood in front of Maria,
examining her big necklace of beads and shell fragments.

Фло пришёл с Симоном, и они стояли перед Марией,
изучая её большое ожерелье из шариков и раковинок.

nutshell - ореховая скорлупа

In a nutshell  - используется во фразах, выражающих краткость, сжатость, ограниченность

Java in a Nutshell - Жаба в скорлупе, Язык Джава по существу.


shine  - сияние
to shine  - светить, светиться; блестеть, сиять, сверкать

main - главный, основной
main menu - главное меню
main course - основное и/или второе блюдо
mainly - главным образом, преимущественно, в основном, большей частью

radio - радио

Most shine mainly in visible and infrared light;
others are also brilliant sources of X-rays or radio waves.

Большая часть светит главным образом в видимом и инфракрасном свете,
другие также яркий источник рентгена или радио-волн.

age  - возраст ; период, эпоха
Ice Age - ледниковый период
death - смерть
bright - яркий, ярко
bright-eyed - с горящими глазами
brilliantly - ярко; блестяще

Blue stars are hot, young and bright;
yellow stars, conventional and middle-aged;
red stars, often elderly and dying;
and small white or black stars are in the final throes of death.

 Голубые звёзды горячи, молоды и ярки,
жёлтые - обычные и среднего возраста,
красные - часто староватые и помирающие,
маленькие белые или чёрные звёзды в последних припадках смерти.

American English | Словарик здесь

There are few grammatical differences between British and American English

Особенности в фонетике и грамматике Американского Английского вызваны сильным влиянием на него Итальянского и Испанского.

В фонетике это заметно по таким словам как car, work, master, professor - -er -ar -or произносится с -r. Итальянская мафия, переселяясь в США, брала уроки Английского, чтобы походить на коренных американцев, но идея немецко-английского -or - Professor - не нашла среди них понимания.  В результате, в Американском Английском -er удлиняется до -err. За исключением этой особенности, слова в Американском Английском более короткие при написании: tortoise/turtle , более "фонетичны": Французское сочетания -ou- заменено на -o- labour/labor , и произносятся быстрее: man , twenty, dog, speed.

В грамматике это проявляется в повторном введении в Английский "аориста" - совершенного прошедшего, передаваемого единичным глаголом - эта форма в большом ходу не только в Русском, но и во многих европейских языках, за исключением стандартного Британского.

to visit - посещать
visited - посещал, посещённый
have visited - посетил, имею посещённым
Am En : visited - посетил

British American Комментарии
The Present Perfect is used for an action in the past with a result now: The Present Perfect or Past Simple can be used:  
I've lost my key. Have you seen it? I've lost my key. Have you seen it?
I lost my key. Did you see it?
Br: Я имею потерявший / Am: Я потерял
Br: Имеешь ты увиденным / Am: Ты видел
Sally isn't here. She's gone out. Sally isn't here. She's gone out.
Sally isn't here. She went out.
Br: Она является вышедшей / Am: Она вышла
The Present Perfect is used with just, already and yet: The Present Perfect or Past Simple can be used:  
I'm not hungry. I've just had lunch. I'm not hungry. I've just had lunch.
I'm not hungry. I just had lunch.
Br: Я имею имел ланч / Am: Я имел ланч
- What time is Mark leaving?
- He has already left.
- What time is Mark leaving?
- He has already left.
- He already left.
Br: Он имеет ушедший / Am: Он ушёл
Have you finished your work yet? Have you finished your work yet?
Did you finish your work yet?
Br: Имеешь ты завершенной / Am: Ты завершил

Grammar Reference. Unit 5

5.0 Introduction to future forms

There is no future tense in English as there is in many European languages. However, English has several forms that can refer to the future. Three of these are will, going to and Present Continuous.

I'll see you later. (will  form)
We're going to see a film tonight. Do you want to come? (going to form)
I'm seeing the doctor tomorrow morning. (Present Continuous)

The difference between them is not about near or distant future, or about certainty. The speaker chooses a future form depending on how the speaker sees the future event. Is it a plan, a decision, an intention, an offer, a prediction, or an arrangement? This is the important question to ask when choosing a future form. There is more about this in Use below.


5.1 will / going to and the Present Continuous


Positive and negative

I'll help you.
He'll paint the house.
You won't watch TV tonight.
They won't build the tower.

They're going to help you.
You're going to watch TV tonight.
You aren't going to the cinema tomorrow.

I'm not catching the 10 o'clock train.
She isn't catching the 5 o'clock train.
He's seeing  the dentist tomorrow evening.


What time will you arrive?
What time are you going to be there?
What time are you meeting the manager?

Note: We avoid saying going to come or going to go.

We're coming tomorrow.
When are you going home?


Plans, decisions, and intentions (will and going to)


Will is used as a modal auxiliary verb to express a decision, intention, or offer made at the moment of speaking. We saw this use in Unit 4. Remember that you can't use the Present Tense for this use.

I'll have the steak, please! NOT I have the steak.
I'll see you tomorrow. Bye! NOT I see you tomorrow.

Give me a call sometime. We'll go out for coffee.
'Jeff, there's someone at the door!' 'OK, I'll get it!'

going to

Going to is used to express a future plan, decision, or intention made before the moment of speaking.

When I grow up, I'm going to be a doctor.
Jane and Peter are going to get married after they graduate.
We're going to paint this room blue.

Facts and predictions (will and going to)


The most common use of will is an auxiliary verb to show future time. It expresses a future fact or prediction. It's called the pure future or the Future Simple.

We'll be away for two weeks.
These flowers won't grow under the tree. It's too dark.
Our love will last forever.
You'll be sick if you eat all those sweets!

Will for a prediction can be based more on an opinion than a fact.

I don't think Laura will do very well in her exams. She doesn't do any work.
I am convinced that inflation will fall to three percent next year.

going to

Going to can also express a prediction, especially when it's based on a present fact. There's evidence now that something is certain to happen.

She's going to have a baby. (We can see she's pregnant.)
Our team is going to win the match. (It's four-nil, and there are only five minutes left to play.)
It isn't going to rain today. (Look at that beautiful blue sky.)

Note: Sometimes there is no difference between will and going to.

This government will ruin the country with its stupid economic policies.
This government is going to ruin ...

Arrangements (Present Continuous)

The Present Continuous can be used to express a future arrangement between people. It usually refers to the near future.

We're going out with Jeremy tonight.
I'm having my hair cut tomorrow.
What are we having for lunch?

Think of the things you might put in your diary to remind you of what you are doing over the next few days and weeks. These are the kinds of events that are often expressed by the Present Continuous for the future. The verbs express some kind of activity or movement.

I'm meeting Peter tonight.
The Taylors are coming for dinner.
I'm seeing the doctor in the morning.

Remember that you can't use the present tense for this use.

We're going to a party on Saturday night.
NOT We go to party on Saturday night.

We're catching the 10 o'clock train.
NOT We catch the 10 o'clock train.

What are you doing this evening?
NOT What do you do this evening?

Sometimes there is no difference between  an agreed arrangement (Present Continuous) and an intention (going to).

We're going to get married in the spring.
We're getting married in the spring.

Grammar Reference. Unit 6

6.0 Introduction to like

Like can be a verb or a preposition.
Like as a verb can be followed by -ing or to, sometimes with a change in meaning.

I like going out at the weekend. (general enjoyment)
I like to sit in a hot bath and read. (habits and preferences)

Like as a verb has a person as the subject:

I like modern arts.
I don't like the way he looks at me.
Do you like fish?
Would you like a drink?

Like as a preposition has an object after it:

She's wearing a hat like mine.
He's nothing like his father.
That sounds like the postman.
You're behaving like children.
This new girlfriend of yours - what's she like?

Dialog 70.  No time left! Диалог 70.  Времени не осталось!
DOCTOR : "I'm afraid I have some bad news. You're dying and you don't have much time."
MAN : "Oh no, that's terrible. How long have I got?"
DOCTOR : "10..." 
MAN : "10? 10 what? Months? Weeks? What?!"
Доктор : "Боюсь, я меня плохие новости. Вы умираете, и у вас не осталось много времени."
: "Ох, как это ужасно. Сколько мне осталось?"
Доктор : "10..."
Мужик : "10? 10 чего? Месяцев, недель, чего?
Доктор :  "10...9...8...7..."
What were you doing when the man came in?
I was reading the book.
I was reading the book when the man came in.
Что ты делал, когда мужчина вошёл ("входил")?
Я читал книгу.
Я читал книгу, когда мужчина вошёл.
What was the doctor doing when the telephone rang?
He was washing his hands.
He was washing his hands when the telephone rang.
Что делал доктор, когда телефон зазвонил ("звонил")?
Он мыл руки.
Он мыл руки, когда телефон зазвонил.
GENIE : "I will grant you three wishes, but your ex-wife will get double."
MAN : "I wish I had a mansion."

The genie granted it, and his ex-wife got two mansions.

MAN : "I would like a million dollars."

The genie again granted it and his ex-wife got two million dollars.

MAN : "Now, scare me half to death."

Джинн : "Я выполню три твои желания, но твоя бывшая жена получит вдвойне."
: "Хотел бы я особняк."

Джинн выполнил, и бывшая жена получила два особняка.

Мужик : "Хотел бы миллион долларов."

Джинн опять выполнил, и бывшая жена получила два миллиона.

Мужик : "Сейчас, напугай меня до полусмерти."

What was your father doing when he heard the news?
He was working in the garden.
He was working in the garden when he heard the news.
Что твой отец делал, когда он услышал ("слышал") новости?
Он работал в саду.
Он работал в саду, когда услыхал новости.


Grammar 30


Повелительное наклонение - Imperative Mood - приказы, просьбы и побуждения.

В предложении, выражающем побуждение, глагол let соответствует русской частице пусть. Форма 1-го лица множественного числа при выражении побуждения может переводиться на русский давайте, давайте-ка.

Ask! Спрашивайте! Спроси!
Ask him! Спросите его! Спроси его!
Don't ask him! He спрашивайте его.
Let him ask. Пусть он спрашивает. Позвольте ему спросить.
Please, ask him. Спросите его, пожалуйста.
Let us go! Давайте мы пойдем!
= Let's go! Идем!
Let us assume that... Допустим, что...
Предположим, ...
Let us face the reality. Посмотрим правде в глаза, будем реалистами.
Let us discuss that question now. Давайте-ка обсудим этот вопрос сейчас.


Модальные глаголы - Modal Verbs

can, could, may, might, must, will, would, should, ought to

Глаголы "вида, режима, способа" действия (выражают возможность, способность или необходимость ).

Эти глаголы неизменяемы. Эти глаголы не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице единственного числа настоящего времени. После модальных глаголов инфинитив стоит без частицы to, исключение - ought to.

can - мочь, быть в состоянии
can - я могу, он может, они могут, и .т.д.

could - форма прошедшего времени - мог, был в состоянии
could - вежливая и сослагательная форма от can

He can speak English.
Он может говорить по английски.

She could do it easily.
Она могла (бы) сделать это легко.

При необходимости выразить будущее или иные сложные временные формы используется be able to.

I shall be able to tell you about it only tomorrow.
Я смогу вам об этом сказать только завтра.

may - форма настоящего времени - может, может быть, возможно

He may come now.
Он может прийти сейчас.

You may be right.
Ты может быть прав.
Ты можешь быть прав.

might - форма прошедшего времени - можно, разрешается
might - можно ли - супервежливые формы

You might at least thank me.
Ты мог бы хотя бы поблагодарить меня.

Might I speak to you for a moment?
Мог бы я поговорить с тобой минутку?

May I come in?
Можно я войду?

She might have done it easily.
Она могла бы сделать это с лёгкостью.

Чтобы выразить будущее или иные сложные временные формы употребляется be allowed to.

You will be allowed to smoke in that room.
Вы сможете курить в этой комнате.
Вам будет позволено, вы будете позволены.

must - должен, должно быть - выражает приказ, долг, обязанность
should - вежливая форма - должен бы

I must go there at once.
Я должен пойти туда немедленно.

You know I should go there.
Знаешь, мне следовало бы сходить туда.

Для выражения прошедшего и будущего времени употребляется глагол have в модальном значении.

I had to get up at seven.
Я должен был встать в семь.

She will have to go with me.
Она должна будет пойти со мной.

ought to - должен, следует, следовало бы

They ought to write letters to their parents.
Им следует написать письма своим родителям.


should - должен, должен бы - выражает необходимость совершения какого-то действия

He should have written this excercise.
Ему следовало бы написать это упражнение.

would - также как will - передает желание, вежливое обращение

We asked her several times but she would keep silence.
Мы спрашивали ее несколько раз, но она молчала.

to be to - "быть чтобы" , должен быть (чем-то) по расписанию, по плану, по договоренности

The house is to be built by the end of the year.
Дом должен быть построен к концу года.

Grammar Reference. Unit 6

6.1 What ... like?

What is / are / was /were ... like? is used to ask about the permanent nature of people and things. It asks for a description or an impression or a comparison.

What's the health service like in your country?
What are the new students like?

Be careful:

1. With a description or an impression, we don't use like in the answer.

What's London like?
It's quite big, and it's very interesting.
NOT It's like quite big...

What's Amanda like?
She's tall, attractive, and very funny.
NOT She's like tall...

2. With a comparison, we can use like in the answer. Here, like means similar to / the same as.

What's London like?
It's like New York, but without the tall buildings. (= It's similar to...)

What's Amanda's daughter like?
She's just like Amanda. (She's the same as...)


6.2 How ... ?

1. How ... ? is used to ask about the present condition of something that can change.

How's work these days?
It's better than last years.

How was the traffic this morning?
It was worse than usual.

To ask about the weather, we can use both questions.

How's the weather where you are?
What's the weather like where you are?

2. How ... ? is also used to ask about people's health and happiness.


How's Peter? He's fine.
What's Peter like? He's a nice guy. He's quite tall, has dark hair...

3. How ... ? is also used to ask about people's reactions and feelings.

How's your meal?
How's your new job?

6.3 How ... ? or What ... like?

Sometimes we can use What ... like? or How ... ?, but they aren't the same.

What ... like? asks for an objective description.
How ... ?
asks for personal feelings. Compare:

How's the party? It's great!
What's the party like? It's very noisy, but there's lots to eat and drink.

6.4 Verb + -ing or infinitive

Verb Patterns - ing or infinitive. Learners often make mistakes when using the infinitive and the -ing form.

The -ing form is used after prepositions.
He put off doing his assignment

The infinitive is used to show purpose ( why you are doing something).
She phoned to check everything was alright.

However, the most problematic areas is that certain verbs are followed by particular verb patterns. Here are some examples.

Verb usually followed by infinitive: He promised to do the washing up.
Verb usually followed by infinitive without 'to': He made me leave the party early because he was jealous.
Verbs followed by an object and 'to': He persuaded me to go to the party.
Verb usually followed by -ing: He put off doing the washing up.
Verb which can be followed by both with out changing the meaning: He started to do the washing up. He started doing the washing up.
Verb which can be followed by both but changes the meaning: He remembered getting up but after that he couldn't remember anything. He remembered to get up early because he had a job interview.


6.5 Relative clauses

1. Relative clauses are used to tell us which person or thing we are talking about. They make it possible to give more information about the person or thing being spoken about.

The boy has gone to the beach. (Which boy?)
The boy who lives next door has gone to the beach.

The book is very good (Which book?)
The book that I bought yesterday is very good.

This is a photo of the hotel. (Which hotel?)
This is a photo of the hotel where we stayed.

2. We use who to refer to people (and we can use that).

The book is about a girl who marries a vampire.

We use that to refer to things (and we can also use which).

What was the name of the horse that won the race?

3. When who or that is the object of a relative clause, it can be left out.

The person you need to talk to is on a holiday.
The book I bought yesterday is very good.

But when who or that is the subject of a relative clause, it must be included.

I like people who are kind and considerate.
I want a computer that is easy to use.

4. Which can be used to refer to the whole previous sentence or idea.

I passed my driving test on my first attempt, which surprised everyone.
Jane can't come to the party, which is a shame.

5. We use whose to refer to someone's possessions.

That's the woman whose dog ran away.
That's the man whose wife won the lottery.

6. We can use where to refer to places.

The hotel where we stayed was right on the beach.
We went back to the place where we first met.

6.6 Participles

Participles after a noun define and identify in the same way as relative clauses.

That woman driving the red Porsche is my aunt.
The men seen outside were probably the thieves.

Grammar Reference. Unit 7

7.0 Introduction to the Present Perfect

The same form (have + past participle) exists in many European languages, but the uses in English are different. In English, the Present Perfect is essentially a present tense, but it also expresses the effect of past actions and activities on the present.


Present Perfect means "before now". The Present Perfect does not express when an action happened. If we say the exact time, we have to use Past Simple.

I my life, I have travelled to all seven continents.
I travelled around Africa in 1999.

7.1 The Present Perfect

Positive and negative form

I've lived in Rome.
You haven't lived in London.
He's worked in Berlin.
She hasn't worked in Paris.
We have played tennis.


How long have I known Peter?
Who long have they known Mary?

Short answer

Have you always lived in Moscow?
Yes, I have.
No, I haven't.


The Present Perfect expresses:

1. An action that began in the past and still continues (unfinished past).

We've lived in the same house for 25 years.
Peter's worked as a teacher since 1999.
How long have you known each other?
They've been married for 20 years.

Note: Many languages express this idea with a present tense, but in English this is wrong.

Peter has been a teacher for ten years.
NOT Peter is a teacher for ten years.

These time expressions are common with this use.

For two years since 1999.
For a month since the end of the class.
For a few minutes since 10 o'clock.
For a half an hour since 5 o'clock.

We use for with a period of time and since with a point in time.

2. An experience that happened at some time in one's life. The action is in the past and finished, but the effects of the action are still felt. When the action happened is not important.

I've been to the United States (I still remember.)
She's written poetry and children's stories. (In her writing career.)
Have you ever had an operation? (At any time in your life up to now.)
How many times has he been married? (In his life.)

The adverbs ever, never, and before are common with this use.

Have you ever been to Australia?
I've never tried bungee jumping (before).
I haven't tried sushi before.

Questions and answers about definite times are expressed in the Past Simple.

When did you go to the USA?
Was her poetry published while she was alive?
I broke my leg once, but I didn't have to stay in the hospital.
He met his second wife in the dry cleaner's.

3. A past action that has a present result. The action is usually in the recent past.

The taxi hasn't arrived yet. (We're still waiting for it.)
What have you done to your lip? (It's bleeding.)

We often announce news in the Present Perfect because the speaker is emphasizing the event as a present fact.

Have you heard? The Prime Minister has resigned.
Susan's had her baby!
I've ruined the meal.

Details about definite time will be in the Past Simple.

She resigned because she lost a vote of no confidence.
She had a baby boy this morning. It was a difficult birth.
I didn't watch it carefully enough.

The adverbs yet, already, and just are common with this use.

I haven't done my homework yet. (Negative)
Has the postman been yet? (Question)
I've already done my homework.
She's just had some good news.

Be careful with been and gone.

He's been to the United States. (experience - he isn't there now)
She's gone to the United States. (present result - she's there now)