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Английский - От фонетики до живой речи. 1000 слов

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Послушайте текст, затем прочитайте и переведите самостоятельно с помощью озвученного словаря.

JRR Tolkien
Hobbit - read by Nichol Williamson

"Light!" he cried. "Can anybody make a light?"
The dwarves, of course, were very alarmed when Bilbo fell forward down the step with a bump into the hall, and they sat huddled just where he had left them at the end the tunnel.
"Sh! sh!" they hissed, when they heard his voice: and though that helped the hobbit to find out where they were, was some time before he could get anything else out of them. But in the end, when Bilbo actually began to stamp in the floor, and screamed out light! at the top of his thrill voice, Thorin gave way, and Oin and Gloin were sent back to their bundles at the top of the tunnel. After a while a twinkling gleam showed them returning, in with a small pine-torch alight in his hand, and Gloin with a bundle of others under his arm. Quickly Bilbo trotted to the door and took the torch; but he could not persuade the dwarves to light the others or to come and join him yet. As Thorin carefully explained, Mr. Baggins was still officially their expert burglar and investigator. If he liked to risk a light, that was his affair. They would wait in the tunnel for his report. So they sat near the door and watched.
They saw the little dark shape of the hobbit start across the floor holding his tiny light aloft. Every now and again, while he was still near enough, they caught a glint and a tinkle as he stumbled on some golden thing. The light grew smaller as he wandered away into the vast hall; then it began to rise dancing into the air. Bilbo was climbing the great mound of treasure. Soon he stood upon the top, and still went on. Then they saw him halt and stoop for a moment; but they did not know the reason. It was the Arkenstone, the Heart of the Mountain. So Bilbo guessed from Thorin's description; but indeed there could not be two such gems, even in so marvellous a hoard, even in all the world. Ever as he climbed, the same white gleam had shone before him and drawn his feet towards Slowly it grew to a little globe of pallid light. Now as came near, it was tinged with a flickering sparkle of man colours at the surface, reflected and splintered from the wavering light of his torch. At last he looked down upon it and he caught his breath. The great jewel shone before he feet of its own inner light, and yet, cut and fashioned by the dwarves, who had dug it from the heart of the mountain long ago, it took all light that fell upon it and-changes it into ten thousand sparks of white radiance shot with glints of the rainbow.
Suddenly Bilbo's arm went towards it drawn by it enchantment. His small hand would not close about it for it was a large and heavy gem; but he lifted it, shut his eyes, and put it in his deepest pocket.
"Now I am a burglar indeed!" thought he. "But I suppose I must tell the dwarves about it-some time. The did say I could pick and choose my own share; and I think I would choose this, if they took all the rest!" All the same he had an uncomfortable feeling that the picking and choosing had not really been meant to include this marvelous gem, and that trouble would yet come of it. Now he went on again. Down the other side of the great mound he climbed, and the spark of his torch vanished from the sight of the watching dwarves. But soon they saw it far away in the distance again. Bilbo was crossing the floor of the hall.
He went on, until he came to the great doors at the further side, and there a draught of air refreshed him, but it almost puffed out his light. He peeped timidly through and caught a glimpse of great passages and of the dim beginnings of wide stairs going up into the gloom. And still there was no sight nor sound of Smaug. He was just going to turn and go back, when a black shape swooped at him and brushed his face. He squeaked and started, stumbled backwards and fell. His torch dropped head downwards and went out!
"Only a bat, I suppose and hope!" he said miserably. But now what am I to do? Which is East, South, North West?"
"Thorin! Balin! Oin! Gloin! Fill! Kili!" he cried as loud he could-it seemed a thin little noise in the wide blackness. "The light's gone out! Someone come and find and help me!" For the moment his courage had failed together.
Faintly the dwarves heard his small cries, though the only word they could catch was 'help!'
"Now what on earth or under it has happened?" said Thorin. "Certainly not the dragon, or he would not go on squeaking."
They waited a moment or two, and still there were no dragon-noises, no sound at all in fact but Bilbo's distant voice. "Come, one of you, get another light or two!" Thorin ordered. "It seems we have got to go and help our burglar."
"It is about our turn to help," said Balin, "and I am quite willing to go. Anyway I expect it is safe for the moment."
Gloin lit several more torches, and then they all crept out, one by one, and went along the wall as hurriedly as they could. It was not long before they met Bilbo himself coming back towards them. His wits had quickly returned soon as he saw the twinkle of their lights.
"Only a bat and a dropped torch, nothing worse!" he said in answer to their questions. Though they were much relieved, they were inclined to be grumpy at being frightened for nothing; but what they would have said, if he had told them at that moment about the Arkenstone, I don't know. The mere fleeting glimpses of treasure which they had caught as they went along had rekindled all the fire of their dwarvish hearts; and when the heart of a dwarf, even the most respectable, is wakened by gold and by jewels, he grows suddenly bold, and he may become fierce.
The dwarves indeed no longer needed any urging. All were now eager to explore the hall while they had the chance, and willing to believe that, for the present, Smaug was away from home. Each now gripped a lighted torch; and as they gazed, first on one side and then on another, they forgot fear and even caution. They spoke aloud, and cried out to one another, as they lifted old treasures from the mound or from the wall and held them in the light caressing and fingering them. Fili and Kili were almost in merry mood, and finding still hanging there many golden harps strung with silver they took them and struck them; and being magical (and also untouched by the dragon, who had small interests in music) they were still in tune. The dark hall was filled with a melody that had long been silent. But most of the dwarves were more practical; they gathered gems and stuffed their pockets, and let what they could not carry far back through their fingers with a sigh. Thorin was not least among these; but always he searched from side to side for something which he could not find. It was the Arkenstone but he spoke of it yet to no one.

Lesson 029

here - здесь, сюда
Here we are! -
Вот мы и пришли! (here - "усилитель")

"You didn't fly me here from Denver on an Air Force jet just to talk old times," said Hagen.
"Вы ведь не привезли ("прилетели") меня сюда из Денвера на военном самолёте, чтобы просто поболтать о прошлом", сказал Хаген.

That's the right number, but I've worked here for six years and I ain't never heard of no Clyde.
Это верный номер, но я работаю здесь шесть лет, и я не никогда не слыхал о никаком Клиде.

You must understand, our work here is highly classified.
Ты должен понимать, наша работа ("работа здесь") строго засекречена.

hill - возвышение, возвышенность, холм
steep hill - крутой холм; крутой подъем

The house stood on a hill.
Дом стоял на холме.

The main building sat on a low hill above a tennis court and a swimming pool.
Центральный корпус находился (основное строение сидело) на небольшом возвышении (низком холме) над теннисным кортом и плавательным бассейном.

a hit
  - толчок, удар ; удача, успех
direct hit - прямое попадание
smashing hit - блестящий успех
to hit - бить, ударять

"They were damaged" ... "By a hit from a rocket," Yasenin finished.
Они были повреждены" ... "Попаданием ракеты", Ясенин заключил.

Thirty minutes later, they hit the atmosphere shortly before Hawaii.
Тридцать минут спустя, они вошли в атмосферу недалеко от Гавайи.

- дом, жилище, приют
retirement home - дом престарелых

"Good luck, Gettysburg. Come home safe. Out."
"Удачи, Геттисбурн. Возвращайся домой невредимым. Конец."

They were forty minutes away from reaching home free.
Они были за сорок минут от достижения дома свободными (чтобы счастливо добраться домой).

- надежда
to hope
- надеяться, верить

I hope so.
There's no hope.
Я надеюсь (на это). Нет надежды.

- лошадь
horsepower - лошадиная сила

Teddy Roosevelt sat astride a horse in a portrait painted in Paris by Tade Styka.
Тедди Рузвельт сидел верхом на лошади на портрете, нарисованном в Париже Тедом Стиком.

They were piling up higher and more steeply, the wind hurling the foaming white horse at the peaks into the next trough.
Они вздымались (на волнах) (всё) выше и круче, ветер швырял пенящуюся белую лошадь на пиках в следующую впадину.

water  - вода
to water - поливать, смачивать

So much water around.
Так много воды вокруг.

Her hull was settled deep in the water a good foot over her Plimsoll mark.
Корпус корабля ("её корпус") сидел глубоко в воде, добрый фут глубже ("глубже её плимсол-отметки") грузовой марки.

Her mouth waters at the sight of popcorn.
У нее текут слюнки при виде попкорна.

Начиная с этого выпуска, в рассылке будет также Grammar Reference, предназначенное для опытных пользователей Английского. Grammar Reference не содержит перевода, и если вы хотите его изучать, вы должны полностью понимать его смысл без словаря. Аудио-файлы с Grammar Reference также можете скачать, чтобы слушать в свободное время, и заодно протестировать ваше восприятие на слух.

Grammar Reference не содержит "упражнений" - целью данной рассылки не является продолжение долбёжки, практикуемой в школах. Слушайте аудиокниги (выберите интересные Вам аудиокниги), читайте самостоятельно вслух (с помощью озвученного словаря, выберите интересующие Вас книги и интересующий Вас акцент Английского) - постепенно, вы будете запоминать всё больше и больше слов и конструкций, будете говорить всё лучше и лучше.

Grammar Reference - заключительная компонента всего проекта "Английский - от фонетики до живой речи". Рекомендую приобрести программы, ставшие стандартом в области обучения иностранным языкам - их необходимо использовать, если вы хотите максимально быстро изучить Английский.

Выделением отмечены компоненты, которые вы получаете через эту рассылку или могли бы использовать, будь у вас МЛТР. Занимаясь по часу в день, за год вполне реально освоить язык до уровня 5 - чтобы понимать на слух аудиокниги и читать книги со словарём.

Уровень Тренировка догадливости Аудио-практика Обучение чтению Обучение письму Обучение общению


Игра "распознай звук"

Знакомство со звуками и простыми словами

    Умение показать пальцем (self-explanatory :)
1 Игра "угадай картинку" Изучение первых слов, с картинками     Простейшие диалоги

Знакомство с несколькими голосами и акцентами

Изучение простых фраз. Курс 1000 слов. Проработка диалогов - курс Oxford Platinum   Диалоги

Предположения о значениях слова в предложении

Прослушивание текста и одновременное чтение - раздел "Что почитать и послушать" London Course

Знакомство со словарём "Lingvo"

Изучение транскрипции

Курс "Живой Английский"

Простые аудиокниги - слушать и видеть текст, повторять предложения за диктором Сведения из грамматики Тренировка ввода слов на клавиатуре

Работа со словарём, аудио-файлами, англоязычные новостные сайты

5 Использование различных акцентов в озвученном словаре

Прослушивание аудиокниг

Чтение книг вслух (с использованием озвученного словаря)   Раздел "Времена Английских глаголов"

Прослушивание аудиокниг

Чтение книг вслух   Курс "Бизнес-Английский"

Прослушивание аудиокниг

Чтение книг вслух   Grammar Reference

Dialog 66. Little and few Диалог 66. Немного и несколько
Why shouldn't blondes have coffee breaks?
It takes too long to retrain them.
Почему блондинки не должны делать перерыв на кофе?
Слишком долго их потом заново обучать.
I've got some coffee.
I've got less than you have. I've got
very little.
У меня есть немного кофе.
У меня меньше, чем у тебя. У меня совсем немного.
I've got some sugar.
I've got less than you have. I've got
very little.
Я взял немного сахара.
Я взял меньше, чем ты. Я взял очень мало.
I've got some money.
I've got less than you have. I've got
very little.
Я получил немного денег.
Я получил меньше тебя. Я получил немного.
What's red and invisible?
No tomatoes.
Что это - красное и не-видимое?
I've got some tomatoes.
I've got fewer than you have. I've got
very few.
Я меня есть несколько помидоров.
У меня меньше, чем у тебя. Я меня небольшое число.
I've got some apples.
I've got fewer than you have. I've got
very few.
У меня несколько яблок.
У меня меньше, чем у тебя. У меня очень мало.
I've got some presents.
I've got fewer than you have. I've got
very few.
Я получил несколько подарков.
Я получил меньше, чем ты. Я получил всего малое число.


Grammar Reference. Unit 1.

1.0 Introduction to auxiliary verbs

There are three classes of verbs in English,

1. The auxiliary verbs do, be, and have

These are used to form tenses, and to show forms such as questions and negatives.

2. Modal auxiliary verbs

Must, can, should, might, will, and would are examples of modal auxiliary verbs. They "help" other verbs, but unlike do, be, and have, they have their own meanings. For example, must expresses obligation and can expresses ability.

3. Full verbs.

These are all the other verbs in the language, for example, play, run, help, think, want, go, etc.

Do, be, and have can also be used as full verbs with their own meanings.

I do my washing on Sundays.
She does a lot of business in Eastern Europe.
What do you do? = What's your job? - The first do is auxiliary; the second is a full verb.

We are in class at the moment.
They were at home yesterday.
I want to be a priest.

He has a lot of problems.
They have three children.

A note on have and have got.
There are two forms of the verb have: have as a full verb with do/does/did for questions, negatives, and short answers and have got where have is an auxiliary.

Времена Английских глаголов

Present Continuous: Active voice vs. Passive voice





Present Continuous

Active Voice I am driving my car

Я веду машину

  Passive Voice

I am being driven by desire...

Я ведом желанием...

I am being driven by...
Я есть будучи ведом посредством...
Я ведом посредством...

I am being asked by my mother... to do something.
Я есть будучи спрашиваемым/спрошенным моей мамой...
Я спрашиваем моей мамой... что-то сделать.
Меня просит мама... что-то сделать.


Формы пассивного прогрессирующего прошлого и будущего используются очень редко. Здесь приводятся исключительно для полноты картины.





Present Continuous, Passive

I am

I am being driven by desire...

Я ведом желанием...

Past Continuous, Passive I was I was being driven by desire... Я был ведом желанием...
Future Continuous, Passive I will be I will be being driven by desire... Я буду ведом желанием...

Несколько примеров различных видов пассивных конструкций.

On being asked where this old shipmate lived,
he was unable to give any satisfactory reply.
Будучи спрошенным, где этот старый товарищ по кораблю жил,
он был неспособен дать какой-либо вразумительный ответ.

Hypnosis works best when the subject has some fundamental sympathy
with what he or she is being asked to do.

Гипноз работает
лучше всего, когда субъект имеет фундаментальную симпатию
с тем, что он или она просимы сделать.

The King now heard talking, back and forth,
as if questions were being asked and answered,
but he could not make out what was said.
Король теперь слышим говорящим, туда-сюда, (имеется ввиду "я слышал, что король говорил")
как будто вопросы были заданы (спрошены) и отвечены,
но он (имеется ввиду слушатель, слушающий короля) не мог разобрать, что было сказано.

Chris likes being asked about that sort of thing. Makes him feel more self-important.
Крис любит быть спрошенным об этом виде вещей. Делает его чувствовать более само-важным.
Крис любит, когда его просят о подобных вещах. Придаёт ему чувство собственной значимости.

The letter plainly stated that a favor was being asked of the Greek by your Father in the name of Hospitality and Honor.
Письмо чётко сообщало, что услуга была попрошена у Грека твоим отцом, именем радушия и чести.

Grammar 026


Verb idioms  - "Глагольные обороты"  - Идиомы, разговорные выражения

1. used to - "имел привычку"

Оборот used to используется при описании событий, которые регулярно происходили в прошлом.

I used to help her.
Я помогал ей. - имеется ввиду, что "помогал, но сейчас уже не помогаю".

She used to love me very much, though we parted such ill-friends.
Она меня любила очень, хотя мы и расстались такими врагами ("больными друзьями").


Оборот is used to используется при описании событий, которые регулярно происходили в прошлом и могут продолжать происходить.

I am used to waking up at 5 AM every morning.
Я привык вставать в пять часов каждое утро.

"I am used to taming wild beasts," he added with a smile.
"Я привык укрощать диких животных", он добавил с улыбкой.


2. be going to - "собираться сделать"

I'm going to work.
Я собираюсь поработать (букв./а не "я идущий работать")

"Our people inside the Cuban war ministry say that Castro is going to pull his troops out of Afghanistan." (c) Clive Cussler
"Наши люди в Кубинском военном министерстве говорят, что Кастро собирается вывести свои войска из Афганистана."

It was going to be a tight race.
It was promising to be a tight race.
Обещалась быть ожесточённая гонка.

"You and Al are going to drop in on the island and create a diversion."
Ты и Л высадитесь на острове и отвлечёте внимание."


3. be to  - "быть чтобы...", должен, имеет место чтобы, есть необходимость...

The train is to arrive on time
Поезд должен прийти вовремя.

The next dance is to be mine
Следующий танец должен быть моим

if .. be to - если надеется, если собирается

John needs to improve his technique if he is to win gold at the next Olympics
Джону необходимо улучшить технику, если он собирается выиграть золото на следующих Олимпийских играх.

if he is to win
"если он чтобы выиграть"

"Now you are not going to interfere about the sheets, are you?"
asked Jacquotte.
"If he is to sleep here, I know what must be done for him perfectly well.

"Теперь, вы ведь не собираетесь давать указания по поводу простыней, не так ли?"
спросила Жаквотт.
"Если он будет тут спать, то я отлично знаю, что должно быть приготовлено для него."

If he is to sleep here
Если он чтобы спать здесь, если собирается спать здесь


4. be through - "пройти" через что-либо, завершить наконец-то что-то долгое и мучительное

"We're through the worst!" he yelled happily. "We've gained the channel!"
"Мы прошли худшее!" он закричал радостно. "Мы достигли канала!"

He was suddenly afraid. He didn't think he could go through with it.
Неожиданно, он был испуган. Он не думал, что мог бы справиться с этим.

be through - "быть через", быть на связи (по телефону)

I'm through with your eternal lies!
Хватит с меня твоей вечной лжи!


Grammar Reference. Unit 1.

1.1. Tenses and auxiliary verbs

When do, be, and have are used as auxiliary verbs, they make different verb forms.

In the Present Simple and the Past Simple there is no auxiliary verb, so do, does, and did are used to make questions and negatives (except with be / have got).

Where do you work?
She doesn't like her job.
What did you buy?
We didn't buy anything.

1. Be + verb + -ing is used to make continuous verb forms. Continuous verb forms describe activities in progress and temporary activities.

He's washing his hands. (Present Continuous)
They were going to work. (Past Continuous)
I've been learning English for three years (Present Perfect Continuous)
I'd like to be lying on the beach right now. (Continuous infinitive)

2. Be + past participle is used to form the passive.

Paper is made from wood. (Present Simple passive)
My car was stolen yesterday (Past Simple passive)
The house has been repainted (Present Perfect passive)
This homework needs to be done tonight (Passive infinitive)

Have + past participle is used to make perfect verb forms.

He has worked in several different countries (Present Perfect)
She was crying because she had had some bad news (Past Perfect)
I'd like to have met Napoleon (Perfect infinitive)

In English, Perfect tense means 'before', so Present Perfect means 'before now.' Past Perfect means 'before a time in the past.'